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The town of Shakhty, the Rostov region, 85-B Pobeda Revolutsii Str., 3rd floor, office 5

Office tel./fax: +7 (8636) 279-161. Mobile phone numbers: +7 (918) 529-09-62, +7 (903) 437-42-26

e-mail: info@jbs-ltd.com 

Rostov-on-Don

Rostov belongs to those few cities in the world, whose names from time eternal include the name of the river they stand at. This lexical link extends the notion of the city, «home» to the river too. Rostovites, the native-born first and foremost, love the Don with a real love of patriots. The Don has always been the „daily-breader“, while the words „hey you, our father Quiet Don“ from the old Cossacks' song are conformable to every townsman's heart.

December 15, 1749 was the date when Empress Yelizaveta Petrovna signed the order on the establishment of a state customhouse in the Temernik mouth. The lower Don was of a certain interest to the Russian State as a commercial intercourse outlet to the ports of the Black, Azov, Mediterranean Seas, the Caspian Basin.

Since 1779 the town of Nakhichevan-on-Don grew close to Rostov. This was founded by the Crimean Armenians who had migrated to the Don land according to the Order by Kamerine the Great.

Rostov started long before its official date of birth. In the early 18th century the Temernik dockyard was built, and in 1713, as the Prussian Pact was signed, the fugitives started settling at the Bogaty Spring in spite of the governmental prohibitions.

In the spring of 1750, near the Bogaty Spring, construction work was started. They built a quay, a warehouse, a quarantine house and a custom house.

The construction of the embankment was started in 1896, but it was hindered by a branch railway line running along the river bank from the Prigorodny Station to Kiziterinka. In 1949 the railway was disassembled and the embankment finally constructed. Now big expressive houses appear on the right bank one after another, thus turning the city with its face to the Don, bringing its business and recreational centers closer together.

The economic and political reforms conducted by Alexander II catalysed Rostov's conversion into 'Russian Chicago', 'Russian Liverpool', as it was named at the end of the 19th century. On the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries Rostov, together with Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev and Nizhny Novgorod, entered five most progressive cities of Russia, which were the first to introduce the newest technical achievements like trams, telephones, water supply lines, cinema, street electric lighting.

By the end of the 19th century the population of Rostov made already about 120 thousand, yet it occupied a comparatively small area; during the two and a half decades between 1889 and 1914 it grew by five dessiatines only! Its expansion was limited from the south by the Don and the flood-lands across the river, from the east by Nakhichevan-on-Don, from the north and the west by deep gullies and ravines. The city land was rather expensive, that is why it grew upwards: from 1895 to 1908 only the City Duma issued 16 permissions to build four-storeyed houses and 263 to build three-storeyed houses. The architecture of Rostov, which was monumental, presentable, becoming a capital city, marks Rostov out of other Russian cities.

After the chaos of the Civil War Rostov developed as a large machine-building centre of Russia. Construction of new districts, industrial giant enterprises went along with blasted churches, new reconstruction and building works, perestroyka, revival of economic life during the latest democratic reforms…

The number of residents in the Don-Land capital and South Federal Area center exceeds one million these days.

This statuary showing the founders of Rostov-on-Don was erected in 2009 as the city turned 260, and it stands at an intersection of Bolshaya Sadovaya Street and Krepostnoy Lane. This in the heart of Rostov, the territory of the former St. Dlmitry of Rostov Fortress, wherefrom the cily started growing. 

This City Council has symbolized the city authorities of Rostov for more than 100 years. The design was ordered to A.N. Pomerantsev, who had started his creative career one decade before by the erection of the trading house belonging to the S. Gench-Ogluev & I. Shaposhnikov Company. By this time, after his work in Italy, he had already been granted the title of the academician of architecture as he was the author of Upper shopping streets in Moscow (later named Moscow GUM).

In 1899 this most magnificent building in all Russian provincial towns, a bright creation by Pomerantsev, was finished and sanctified. This brilliant success was backed up by the election, in the same year, of A.N. Pomerantsev as the Rector of the Academy of Arts.

Rostovites' special democratism set a seal on its arrangement: the council-hall had a 200-seat gallery for the public, so that any person from the street, leave alone the journalists, could hear the discussion of every question.

Over 600 thousand rubles were spent to build the City Council. The Duma thriftily leased the ground floor to business firms thus gaining a total of 35 thousand

rubles per year. To attract customers, a brass band used to play music at definite hours in the City Council yard.

The building suffered from a fire in 1922, it was destroyed by bombardments in 1921 and 1942. In 1953 it was restored with significant simplification. The restoration of 1995-1998 brought back important elements of architecture, thus drawing the City Council closer to its original look.

Today the Rostov-on-Don Administration and other establishments work here.

The word don means river in the Old Alan language. Our River starts from a spring-well located in a park of Novomoskovsk, Tula Region, wherefrom the 2 mile long watercourse Beryzka outflows. Then this is accompanied with another river Urvanka, and then with more than five thousand big and small rivers, innumerable brooks and brooklets. The Don co-ops waters from a territory much exceeding, say. the full area of Germany; it flows across the Tula, Lipetsk, Voronezh, Rostov Regions, drops in the Volgograd Region and then again enters the Rostov Region. Its largest and most well-known tributaries are the Voronezh, the Tikhaya Sosnu. the Khoper, the Medveditsa, the Chir, the Seversky Donets, the Sal, the Zapaclny Manyen… The Aksay regarded by many in the Lower Don area a river, is in fact an arm breaking away from the Don-near stanitsa Melikhovskaya and reuniting with it a bit upward of Rostov.

The way the Don makes to reach the Sea of Azov these days is 1,162 miles long (about 1,000 miles out of this distance are navigable). The river contracted by 68 miles due to man's effort aimed at rectification of those bends previously improper for shipping. To feed. some rivers by the waters of some others, they constructed passable and hydroceoiiomic canals. As a result the Dnepr, the Volga, the Don and the Kuban now aid each oilier like close friends.

Those were the Sultans of the 16th century and Tsar Peter the Great in the 17th, who tried to unite the Don and the Volga for economic and military purposes. Yet the attempts failed and were slopped due to a new situation. The old plans came true in the 20th century second half. The Don now has grandiose water development facilities: the Volga-Don Canal, the dam of Tsimlyansk, locks. And they also created the Tsimlyelisk Reservoir, the fifth in all Russia in its flat water area. The system controls the flowing of the Don preventing lowland waterflooding during spring overflows and summer shoalings. Thanks to it Rostov, specifically after the Volga-Baltic water-way opening, became the 'port of the five seas'.

The Don is one of the 50 world's largest rivers. Only four European rivers exceed the Don in length. Among all the Russian rivers that fall into seas it is one among the first ten, which fact is really impressive as it places the Don close to the Ob. the Yenisei and other giants making the 'company'. Many rivers are much more abounding in waterr than our Father Don that runs unhasting across the downcountry and is long named by the people the Quiet Don. There is still another reservoir reminding of mis definition, and it's the Pacific Ocean…

Holy Mother's Birth Cathedral was constructed between 1854 and 1860. from the model design by Academician of Architecture K. A. Ton. The bell tower was erected in 1875-87 after the plans of the Don-land Army architect and engineer A. Campioni and architect and artist D.V. Lebedev. Its height, the cross included, is making 72 m.

In the Soviet time the clergy were evicted from the Cathedral territory as an 'alien element', which then housed a zoo from 1930 to 1942. The Cathedral itself was used as a storehouse.

By the end of the 1940s the Cathedral was again opened for the parish. Its iconostasis is a replica of the one disassembled in the 1930s in Lord Saviour's Cathedral.

In 2010 the Lady Mary Birth Cathedral of Rostov turned 150. Almost one half of this time it stood without its belfry: first during the early years of its erection and then for about 60 years after the tower's upper floors were destroyed in 1942. In the year 1949 the first floor was also dismantled, and the ground floor was finished to be a separate small baptistery.

On the 21st of September, 1999, the cathedral holiday of Lady Mary Birth, which overlapped the 250th anniversary of Rostov-on-Don, the restored belfry was consecrated by Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy II.

In 1762 they transferee! to Rostov the wooden Pokrovskaya (Protection) Church of the disbanded Anninskaya Fortress located in the upper Don lands, close to Cherkassk. They placed the Church in the central fortress square in the outpost of St. Dimitry of Rostov. As the legend says, General Lieutenant Alexander V. Suvorov used to sing and tell prayers at the choir of the Pokrovskaya Church.

There was a need in a more spacious chapel in the last quarter of the 18th century, and they started constructing it of pinewood on a stone foundation. The consecration ceremony took place in September 1784. This second Pokrovskaya Church survived for 111 years; the fire of 1895 burnt down the bell tower and damaged the temple.

In 1897, a bit to the west, at the crossing of Bogatianovski Lane and Bolshaya Sadovaya Street, they started constructing a new brick temple. The work was headed by the designer, prominent architect N.M. Sokolov. In 1903 the Novo-Pokrovskaya Church was consecrated.

The style reproduced some elements of the old Russian architecture of the 16-17th centuries, and the three-storied 75 meters high bell tower was taller than today's belfry of Virgin Mary Birth Cathedral.

This beautiful church stood for only a quarter of a century. In the 1930s, at the spot where about 170 years before that temples replaced each other, appeared a monument to Bolshevist Kirov bearing a ton-up inscription.

In 2005 the monument was transferred to a different place. And in 2007 the fourth Pokrovskaya Church started its life on the land of the spiritual center and the architectural nucleus of Rostov (architect G.A. Shevchenko). The construction was done by the money of hundreds of Rostovites, Don Country and Russia people, dozens of enterprises and companies.

During the years of Great Patriotic War Rostov was twice occupied by the German troops. It entered the list of the fifteen most badly destroyed cities of the USSR. qq,733 houses were completely destroyed, over 40 thousand citizens were executed by shooting, 53 thousand people were driven away to Germany.

This 73 meter high stele with an Order of the Patriotic War First Class and aureate sculpture of Nike was erected in 1982. In 2008 the Russian steering committee Victory took a decision to grant Rostov the title of honour A City of Military Glory.

The Azov beluga, the Don stellate sturgeon, the sterlet, the shad, the eel, the bystryanka, the shemaya, the dog-fish; the gobies named ryzhik, tsutsik, Knipovicha, kruglyak, peschanik, gonets; the Ukrainian sucking-fish, the vyrezub, the podust, the beloglazka, the bullhead, the bream (locals calling it chebak), the pike-perch (sula in the local dialect), the carp, the pike, the Don herring, the catfish, the Black-and-Azov-Sea sturgeon, the Kerch herring, the Black-Sea herring, the Black-Sea sprat and the Caspian-Sea sprat, the Black-Sea salmon, the whitefish (or the lake herring), the peled (or the syrok), the roach, the sea-roach, the Danilevskogo dace and the ordinary dace, the chub, the ide, the minnow, the red-eye, the zherekh, the ovsyanka, the tench, the ordinary gudgeon and the white gudgeon, the bleak, the rybets, the chekhon, the bitterling, the sinets, the dolden crucian carp and the silvery crucian carp, the loach, the loach, the Asian shipovka and the ordinary shipovka, the sheatfish, the nine-needle prickle-back and the three-needle prickle-back, the Black-Sea needlefish, the bersh, the perch, the ruff, the biryuchok, the stellular pugolovka…

All these fish either inhabited the Don or passed the river on their way to breed. Most disappeared or became extremely rare. About fifty years ago the bazaars of Rostov were crammed with fish: fresh, sun-dried, smoked. Before that, before the epoch of 'historical materialism' (as Ostap Bender put it), fish was taken to the capital and abroad by cartfuls, in caravans.

The diversity of fish, its plenty in the rivers, its great importance for the people's lives were reflected in the diversity of the words this or that way denoting

our attitude to fish: fisherman, fisherwoman, fishery, fishing, scaler, big fish, enormous fish, little fish, fingerling, darling fish, fish processing plant… fishery supervision…

There were years and epochs when, be it war or starvation, fish saved people. A special Rudd's Day is even celebrated in stanitsa Starocherkasskaya not far from Rostov.

The people living at some other places of Russia still associate the Don Country with a fish plenty…

A river is a road, yet it is an obstacle too. St. Dimitry Rostovsky's Fortress was founded on a heugh since the Don protected from the foes' raids from the south. Eventually the natural frontier became an obstacle rather not for raids, but for economic development.

In 1875, soon after the construction of the railway from Rostov to Vladikavkaz had started, the first in all Russia railway bridge with a floating middle section was built across the Don. True, the passage appeared smallish.

Forty years passed, and it was decided to build a new bridge, which would not hamper navigation. This one was designed by Professors S. I. Belzetsky, N.A. Belelyubsky, G.P. Perederiya. Its moving element raised to 40 metres was made by the American engineer Hunter, the work was carried out by an American company, so Rostovites called «American bridge». On May 9, 1917, during the inauguration festivities, they said that the bridge's technology was unique in the whole world.

At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, Literny bridge was in no time built upward «American» bridge. Both were blasted by the order of the Soviet officership on November 21,1941, after a violent battle between the bridge guards and a Nazi raiding party. The Literny was restored, but in July 1942 it was demolished by hostile bombing. It was again reconstructed in the spring of 1943.

It is at the place where the Literny once was, that the present floating bridge is standing now. It was put in commission in October 1952.

Voroshilovsky Bridge, this southern gate of Rostov, was constructed in 1965 from the design by engineer N.I. Kuznetsov. It is unique as its separate blocks, each weighing 27-30 tons, are neither welded, nor riveted, nor cabled as done before, but glued with bustilate. This was the first experience of a kind in the USSR.

The bridge is 620 m long, its width is 12 m, and distance to the river water reaches 32 m, so that any types of vessels could pass under.

However the Rostov bridge construction miracle needs rebuilding. The scheduled examination revealed deterioration of the armature. For more than six months, from the fall of 2007 to the summer of 2008, the bridge was under repair, which dramatically perplexed the life of the Rostovites.

The municipal and federal authorities boost the construction of a new six-way federal bridge in the cross-section of Sivers Street, close to the existing railway bridge. The new 460 meters long structure will make a part of an 5 mile long transport semi-ring with interchanges, viaducts and flyovers. Its daily traffic capacity will make 60 thousand cars and trucks.

Voroshilovski bridge, after it is modernized, will also serve for not less than 50 years more.

Do you love Rostov?., the throb of its streets, polyphony of markets and railway stations, the architecture violent in its various styles, molten July air and crisp, perhaps too crisp frosty February wind, spatter of fish in the Don at the crack of day…

Do you love Rostov the way it was loved by those who defended it and restored from rains, who grope for its history and struggle to preserve the Rostov antiquity, who plant flowers near their houses…

Rostov started to acquire its today's festive look during the latest years. The new development plan expiring in 2025 envisages expansion of the city towards Aksai and Chaltyr, large-scale construction works at the left bank of the Don, creation of the Eastern Railway Station. In prospect, it is supposed to join Rostov-on-Don, Novocherkassk, Aksai, Bataisk, Taganrog and Azov together into a single megapolis named Big Rostov.

Among other Russian cities, whose population exceeds 1 million, it is Rostov-on-Don, in the swim with Moscow and St. Petersburg, that is characterized during the last 20 years by a positive demographic balance, its population growth pace being second only after Moscow.

In the rate of construction Rostov-on-Don has been lately ahead of most other cities of Russia. In any of its sections, wherever you glance, you can see new or rebuilt houses: grand business centers, luxurious offices, made-to-order apartment buildings, bizarre villas and unpretentious, yet nice cottages.

Fast reconstructed is the center of Rostov with quite a number of shabby houses. These will be replaced by six municipal complexes, the left bank of the Don River being first included there.

…In any city, during any trip, and to any companion you may say 'I am a girl from Rostov', and he will at once realize why you are so beautiful. You may say 'I am a man from Rostov', and everyone will know how energetic, witty, resilient and reliable you are.

By all means Rostovites of all the states should unite, as the merry motto at the beginning of Bolshaya Sadovaya reads.

If you take a fresh glance at today's Rostov and then read some extracts from the book of a 19th century publicist, you might feel a deja vu, as though it all has already taken place once or twice…

«Rostov… A Russian Yankee with monstrously long legs, gathering and horny arms, lying in such a favorable place as is the mouth of the old Tanais, due to haste neglected the main thing, which is the earth. As its mighty people grow in number, it also has to expand, yet it does not have enough land for this… As it cannot expand like old mother Moscow, Rostov, rather like Petersburg surrounded by bogs, has climbed up the mountain… The building boom, like that of St. Petersburg of the early 80s, has now captured Rostov. (A.M. Grekov. Among the Don-Land Inhabitants, 1894).

The panorama of Rostov, south-west view, early 20th century. The curve of the Don, a flat Temernik hill… The snap, judging by the camera angle, was made from the Church of St. Alexander of the Neva.

Next page: the panorama of Rostov, south-west view, early 21st century. There is no lack of high points to snap from… The same way curves the Don, yet

the flat Temernik hill has so many houses now.

The later picture, like life itself, however lacks the Kazan Church, as well as the present-day landscape lacks the Church of St. Alexander of the Neva and many others; yet there are new houses, while the old ones have been modernized becoming unrecognizable.

During the first decade of the new century the construction fever went very, very high. Each year, each month and even day bring dramatic changes in the city's image.